Factors contributing to physical Gender Based Violence reported at Ndola Central Hospital, Ndola, Zambia: A case control study
Objectives: To determine socio-demographic factors associated with gender-based violence (GBV).
Design: A case control study was conducted at Ndola Central Hospital Casualty Department. The study was conducted from December 2015 to July 2016. A sample size of 85 cases and 85 controls was calculatedafter a pilot study of 30 cases and 30 controls was conducted. Out of the pilot study 60% of people who drink alcohol reported that they experienced GBV- physical assault while 27.6% of people who drink alcohol reported that they did not experience GBV- physical assault. Based on these outcomes the sample size was calculated using Stat. Calc in Epi-Info version 7 with the power at 80%.
Main outcomes: From the adjusted odds ratio alcohol drinking increases the likelihood of GBV- physical assault by 2.25 times. Those living in high density areas are 2.23 times more at risk of GBV physical assault. Females are 2.27 times at risk of GBV physical assault unlike males.
Measures: The dependant (outcome) variable is GBVphysical assault. The independent (predictor) variables are; alcohol abuse, income level, area of residence and gender. These were chosen because these are some of the risk factors of GBV-physical according to literature.
Results: Out of the 179 patients who participated in the study, 93(52%) reported to have experienced GBV- physical assault regardless of age. Morefemales 67(68.4%) experienced GBV physical assault than males 26(32.1%). More than 2/3 of those who reported alcohol drinking 51(69.9%) experienced GBV-physical assault and only 40(40.0%) among those who did not report the outcome. Those from high density 82(56.9%) reported having experienced more GBV physical assault compared to 5(23.8%) of those from low density areas.
Conclusion: There is need for healthy life styles to be encouraged such as control of alcohol consumption in order to reduce GBV – physical assault due to alcohol intake. Sensitization campaigns and educational programmesought to be intensified in order to address factors that make females more prone to GBV-physical assault than males. Living in a high density area is a risk factor of GBV- physical assault as compared to living in a low density area. Therefore more sensitization programmes should be put in place at a societal level to reduce GBV – physical assault in such communities.
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