Relative Frequencies of Odontogenic Cysts and their Protein and Glucose Content
Background: Odontogenic cysts are derived from remnants of odontogenic apparatus entrapped within jawbones. The diagnosis of cysts is based on histology features; however, these features are not clear-cut in many cases, except for a few like OKC and Calcifying Odontogenic cyst. The knowledge of the content of these cysts may assist in the differentiation and diagnosis of the cysts. This study reviewed the pattern of jaw cysts presentation and further analyzed the glucose and protein contents of some odontogenic cysts among them. The findings from our local environment were compared with findings globally as regards jaw cysts.
Methods: Aretrospective search of the departmental records of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Pathology of the University College Hospital Ibadan was done from the year 2010 to 2017 for jaw cysts. The cystic content of odontogenic cysts was analyzed prospectively from 2016 to 2017 for total protein, albumin and glucose. Some cases of unicystic ameloblastoma were included because as at the time of obtaining the aspirate the working diagnosis was jaw cyst. Total protein, albumin and glucose estimations of the cysts were done by Biuret, Bromocresol Green and Glucose Oxidase methods respectively. The literature search was done on PubMed, using the keywords cysts, jaw cysts, odontogenic cysts, protein, albumin, glucose content.
Results: 1,156 lesions were diagnosed within the study period of 7 years, among which 45 lesions (3.9%) were jaw cysts of odontogenic origin. Collectively the mean age at presentation was 30.8 (SD± 17.2) years while it was 32.7 (SD±14.4), 21.6 (SD±14.6) and 40.1 (SD±24.0) years for radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and OKC respectively. The mean concentration of total protein was highest in radicular cysts (6.2g/dL) compared with the dentigerous cysts.
Conclusion: Radicular cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst followed by the dentigerous cyst. The radicular cyst favours the anterior maxilla while the dentigerous cyst favours the posterior mandible. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of protein estimation of odontogenic cystic fluids.
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