TNF-alpha Levels in Serum and Mononuclear Cell Lysate of Nigerian Tuberculosis Patients at Diagnosis
Background and Objectives: The need for additional markers for differential diagnosis of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and drug sensitive M.tb have been raised by previous studies. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-á) produced by monocyte/macrophage, neutrophilic and lymphocytic linkage plays a central role in effective immunity to many disease conditions including M.tb. Since M.tb either preferential inhabits or transits cells producing TNF-á, it is therefore diagnostically useful to measure the levels of TNF-á in the both mononuclear cell lysate and serum of drug sensitive TB (DS-TB) patients and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients compared with healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Medical Out-Patients' Department and Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Center, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. TB patients were selected by Consultant Chest physician after detailed laboratory and clinical procedures. The levels of mononuclear cell lysate- and serum- TNF-á were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Serum and lysate TNF-á levels were significantly elevated in DS-TB patients (p <0.05) and MDR-TB patients (p < 0.05) compared with the control. But serum and lysate TNF-á levels were not significantly different in DS-TB patients compared with MDR-TB patients (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: Serum level of TNF-á or lysate TNF-á does not differentiate DS-TB patients from MDR- TB patients and the use of antagonist of TNF-á be handled with caution in TB patients.
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