The Prevalence of Kidney Dysfunction and Associated Risk Factors among ART-Naïve HIV-1 infected Adults at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia
Background: Chronic HIV infection is associated with renal complications including renal dysfunction. Risk factors found in literature for kidney disease in the HIV population include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, low CD4 count, high viral load, hepatitis C virus co-infection, hypoalbuminemia, and a family history of CKD, black race, nephrotoxic drugs including antiretroviral medication. Other factors implicated being underweight, obesity, herbal medication use, chronic NSAID use.
No local studies have been done to validate these risk factors in our ART naïve HIV infected adult population.
General objective: To determine the prevalence of renal dysfunction and associated risk factors in ART naïve HIV infected adults at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka.
Methods: This was a cross sectional analytical study with 360 participants enrolled. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood and urine samples were collected for creatinine, CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load, serum albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, Hepatitis C antibody, Random blood sugar, urinalysis. Data was entered onto a Microsoft office excel spread sheet, and analysed using STATA version 13. We investigated the association between the dependent variable and each independent variable.
Results: The prevalence of renal dysfunction was 24.76%. The overall mean age for the sample population was 36.62 (renal=37.53 and non-renal 35.47). The study population comprised more females (54.63%) than males. Hypertension OR=2.63, (95% CI 1.11, 6.12) was the only factor found to be predictive of renal dysfunction.
Conclusion: The prevalence of renal dysfunction among ART naïve HIV infected adults was high. However, no significant predictors of renal dysfunction were found in our study other than hypertension.
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