Pattern of occurrence, presentation and management of mid-face fractures among patients attending the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Background: Mid-face fractures are a common occurrence among patients who are attended at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). Despite the fact that quite often their management is carried out through a multidisciplinary approach, some patients end up with permanent complications.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the pattern of occurrence, presentation and management outcome of mid-face fractures among patients attending MNH in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Material and methods: A descriptive prospective hospital-based study was carried out at MNH for a period of one year, from May 2013 to April 2014. All patients with mid-face fractures were included in the study. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire followed by a thorough clinical examination. Radiological imaging and basic laboratory investigations were done. Details were recorded in a special clinical form. Thereafter, patients were managed according to the MNH protocol. Data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.
Results: Three hundred patients were enrolled in this study. The age range was from 6-62 years (mean of 29.64 ± 9.78), with the highest frequency in the 20-29-year age group and the female to male ratio was 1:10.5. Road traffic crash(RTC) was the most common cause of mid-face fractures accounting for 82% of the cases. Of the RTC, motorcycle accidents were predominant (63.9%).
Five hundred and ninety-four mid-face fractures were recorded of which zygomatic complex fracture was the most (26.8%) prevalent. Definitive treatment was given to 79.7% of the patients. Closed methods were predominantly used. Among the patients who were treated 18% had one or more complications, the most (81.5%) common being aesthetic impairment.
Conclusion: Road traffic crashes and in particular motorcycle accidents constituted the major cause of mid-face fractures. Young adult males were the main victims. Zygomatic complex fracture was the most frequently occurring mid-face fracture. The majority of fractures were treated by closed methods and the common complication was aesthetic impairment.
It is condition of publication in the journal that the authors assign copyright to the Medical Journal of Zambia. To this effect all accompanying letters must contain the following statement. The authors being the sole and legitimate holder of the copyright hereby transfer it to Medical Journal of Zambia.