• Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Adolescents in Choma District of Zambia
    Vol. 49 No. (2) 118-127 (2022)

    Dental caries and periodontal
    diseases are the most common oral diseases
    globally. Early control of oral health behaviours is
    important because lifestyles acquired during
    adolescence are powerful predictors of adult health.
    We conducted a study to determine knowledge,
    attitude and practices on oral hygiene among
    school-going adolescents in Choma district of

  • Vision Screening of Learners by Teachers in Kafue District in Zambia as a Strategy to Address the Challenges of Childhood Blindness
    Vol. 48 No. (1) 4-14 (2020)

    Early detection and treatment of eye
    diseases in children is critical in combating
    childhood blindness. Innovative community-based
    strategies such as training of teachers in vision
    screening need to be developed for effective
    utilisation of the available human resources as well
    as to counter the challenges of inequitable
    distribution of trained eye health human resources
    as well as the limited access of quality eye health
    care services to the majority of our population.

  • Histomorphology of Bone marrow from Adult Pancytopenic Patients at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia
    Vol. 46 No. (1) 41-45 (2019)

    Pancytopenia is a haematologic
    condition characterised by leukopenia, anaemia and
    thrombocytopenia. Pancytopenia is not a diagnosis
    and has to be qualified by determination of its cause.
    The aetiologies of pancytopenia are diverse, and
    study of bone marrow histomorphology via
    cytology and histology are key components that
    assist in the determination of the underlying cause.
    Pancytopenia is encountered regularly in medical
    practice in Zambia, however, no studies have been
    conducted on pancytopenia to date. This was a
    descriptive cross-sectional study done on adult
    pancytopenic patients admitted to the medical wards
    of the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) over an
    eight-month period. The aim of this study was to
    determine the histomorphology of the bone
    marrows of adult pancytopenic patients admitted to
    the UTH.

  • Medical School Admissions: A Review of Global Practices, Predictive Validity, and Practice Points for Africa.
    Vol. 47 No. (3) 241-249 (2020)

    Processes for selection of candidates
    into medical schools vary globally. Knowledge of
    the predictive validity of a selection method is
    important for policy revision.

  • Relative Frequencies of Odontogenic Cysts and their Protein and Glucose Content
    Vol. 45 No. (4) 203-209 (2018)

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from
    remnants of odontogenic apparatus entrapped
    within jawbones. The diagnosis of cysts is based on
    histology features; however, these features are not
    clear-cut in many cases, except for a few like OKC
    and Calcifying Odontogenic cyst. The knowledge of
    the content of these cysts may assist in the
    differentiation and diagnosis of the cysts. This study
    reviewed the pattern of jaw cysts presentation and
    further analyzed the glucose and protein contents of
    some odontogenic cysts among them. The findings
    from our local environment were compared with
    findings globally as regards jaw cysts.

  • The use of Neurobion® Forte in the Treatment of Pellagra in an adult on anti-TB treatment: A case report from Lusaka, Zambia
    Vol. 48 No. (1) 58-62 (2021)

    The deficiency of Niacin and/or its precursor amino
    acid, Tryptophan can result in a disease called
    Pellagra. Isoniazid (INH), a key drug used in
    tuberculosis (TB) treatment has been associated
    with pellagra particularly in developing nations
    where poor nutritional status is highly prevalent
    among its people.We report a case of pellagra with
    classical dermatological manifestations
    (hyperpigmented skin lesions around the neck), on
    the face, and external surfaces of the upper limbs) in
    a black African HIV negative adult female, on TB
    treatment for 11 weeks managed with a combo of
    Vitamin B1 - 10mg, Vitamin B2 - 10mg, Vitamin B3
    - 45mg, Vitamin B5 - 50mg, Vitamin B6 - 3mg and
    Vitamin B12 - 15mcg (Neurobion® Forte) with
    noticeable response to the treatment within one

  • Is It Possible to Miss a Metallic Airway Foreign Body on a Chest Radiograph? Imaging Case Report from Zambia
    Vol. 49 No. (1) 96-101 (2022)

    Infants and young children are commonly referred
    for medical imaging for suspected aspirated or
    inhaled foreign bodies (Fbs). FB aspirations are
    potentially life-threatening and immediate
    diagnosis and treatment are vital to avert fatalities.
    Chest radiography is the first-line imaging method
    indicated to evaluate suspected aspirated FB. This
    can be supplemented withothermedical imaging
    modalities, such as fluoroscopy, computed
    tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging
    (MRI). However, the lack of specialised medical
    imaging modalities in developing countries
    impends timely diagnosis of aspirated FB. We report
    a case of a 7-year-old girl with airway metallic FB
    not visible on the initial chest radiograph. This case
    report highlights the challenges low-income health
    institutions are facing in the diagnosing of airway
    FBs and other complicated conditions which require
    advanced imaging. In the absence of specialised
    medical imaging modalities, radiographers and
    clinicians should have high indexes of suspicion to
    avert deaths. In addition, specialised training of
    radiographers in the absence of radio lo gists might
    contribute to improved patient outcomes.

  • The Pattern and Outcome of Management of Acquired Anorectal fistulas in Children at a semi-urban Teaching Hospital
    Vol. 47 No. (2) 143-146 (2020)

    Acquired anorectal fistulas are a
    severe cause for parental concerns, and they pose
    considerable challenges in their management.

  • Distribution and Characteristics of Endometriotic Lesions in South- Western Nigeria: A Single Institutional Experience
    Vol. 46 No. (1) 28-32 (2019)

    Endometriosis poses a significant
    burden mainly to women of child bearing age.
    Historically, endometriosis was thought to be of low
    prevalence among African women. However, recent
    studies have documented an increased prevalence
    than previously thought. This study aimed to
    determine the distribution and characteristics of
    endometriotic lesions among Nigerian women.

  • Impact and challenges of consultancy role regarding the delivery of breast imaging services in the United Kingdom: consultant breast radiographers' perspective
    Vol. 48 No. (1) 46-53 (2021)

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of
    death in women worldwide. Imaging and
    radiographers play an important role in the diagnosis
    and treatment of breast cancer. With the increase in
    demand and a shortage of radiologists in the UK,
    consultant breast radiographers were introduced to
    perform some roles previously performed by
    radiologists. However, there is a scarcity of research
    to assist other countries, such as Zambia, who are
    planning to extend the role of radiographers.

  • Correlates of Hypertension among Persons Living with HIV at Livingstone Central Hospital: A Cross- sectional study
    Vol. 49 No. (1) 4-16 (2022)

    Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are more likely to develop hypertension and cardiovascular disease than the HIV-negative population. The new hypertension guidelines by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) lowered the definition of hypertension from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of ≥140/90mmHg to ≥ 130/80, respectively. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension in PLWH in Livingstone using the new hypertension diagnostic criteria.

  • Road traffic injuries among children in Dakar, Senegal
    Vol. 47 No. (3) 204-207 (2020)

    Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major
    public health problem and contribute significantly
    to the global burden. The aim of this study was to
    assess the frequency of RTIs in children and to
    determine their socio-demographic and lesional

  • Spinal Haemangioblastomas: A Report of Two Cases
    Vol. 46 No. (2) 140-146 (2019)

    Spinal haemangioblastomas are rare
    benign but potentially devastating vascular tumours.
    They may occur sporadically or as a component of
    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. There is a dearth
    of information about these tumours among
    Nigerians. This study aims to evaluate the clinical
    profile and outcome of surgery as well as the
    challenges of management of these tumours in a
    resource-limited country.

  • A Case Report of Tenofovir Alafenamide Induced Alopecia in a Zambian Teenager: A call for Pharmacovigilance
    Vol. 48 No. (1) 63-66 (2021)

    Adverse drug reactions continue to pose a global  risk in the fight against HIV. In an attempt to attain  the end AIDS pandemic by 2030, newer drugs are  being formulated with better efficacy and fewer side  effects. However, these new drugs still have Adverse  Drug Reactions (ADRs), which may affect adherence and compliance. We present a rare case of  Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF) induced alopecia of a  Zamb i a n teenager  in the context of pharmacovigilance as a tool to identify ADRs,  which may or may not have been identified during  clinical trials. This is a wake-up call to all health care  workers to identify and report ADRs and use the  established channels to affect policy change.

  • Application of Interprofessional Education Model to University Pre-Licensure Health Students in the Management of Chronic Care Conditions in Zambia
    Vol. 49 No. (2) 185-197 (2022)

    There is evidence that
    multidisciplinary healthcare teams can provide
    better quality of care and treatment outcomes
    compared to that delivered by individuals from a
    single health discipline. The project on which this
    article is based applied the interprofessional
    education model to university pre-licensure health
    students in the management of chronic care
    conditions in Zambia.

  • Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Breast Carcinomas in Uyo, Subtropical Region of Africa
    Vol. 46 No. (2) 100-108 (2019)

    There is a relative dearth of data for
    immunohistochemical characteristics of breast
    carcinomas in cancer registries of Nigeria and some
    parts of Africa. A descriptive hospital based study,
    done over a year, involving three hospitals in Uyo
    rendering breast cancer care.

  • Trosier's sign: A Rare Presentation of Metastatic Prostate Cancer
    Vol. 48 No. (3) 339-341 (2021)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in men globally. The most common sites of metastasis include the bone, lymph nodes, lungs, liver, pleura, and adrenal glands. A 65-year- old Zambian man presented with neck swelling for 3 months with mild lower urinary tract symptoms. He reported that the swelling was fast growing, painless and with no history of trauma. On examination, Trosier's sign was present. Histology report following a lymph node incision biopsy demonstrated Adenocarcinoma. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was also positive. A follow up prostate biopsy found adenocarcinoma Gleason 8. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion in older, male patients presenting with unexplained neck swelling and no known history of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  • Factors Influencing the Knowledge and Practice of Emergency Contraception among Nigerian Male Undergraduates
    Vol. 47 No. (2) 98-105 (2020)

    Unwanted pregnancies among young
    women is a growing reproductive health concern.
    Correct and consistent use of contraception will stop
    this ugly trend while emergency contraception (EC)
    can also be viewed as a 'second chance method' in
    preventing unwanted pregnancies and unsafe
    abortions. The aim of this study is to assess the
    knowledge and practice of emergency contraception
    among Nigerian male undergraduates as they are
    known to have risky sexual behaviours.

  • An Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury in Women Admitted to the High Dependency Care Unit at Women and Newborn Hospital, Lusaka-Zambia
    Vol. 49 No. 2 (2022)

    The Medical Journal of Zambia (MJZ) is a peerreviewedquarterly journal intended for the publication of papers from all specialities ofmedicine (Internal medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics and Obstetrics & Gynaecology) and their subspecialities, basic science, public health, social medicine and medical politics. The journal also welcomes contributions from experienced individuals describing the way they deal with particular problems (i.e. intended to pass on the art of medicine).

  • Synonymous Myocilin mutations break their silence in a Zambian population attending selected referral eye health facilities
    Vol. 49 No. (2) 157-162 (2022)

    Primary open-angle glaucoma in Zambia has an earlier age of onset and appears to be more  clinically severe. Myocilin mutations are associated with primary open angle glaucoma in multiple popuations  Therefore, we investigated   the role of  myocilin gene mutations in Primary Open Angle  Glaucoma in a Zambian population.

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