Foetal Outcome in Women presenting with Meconium Stained Liquor at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka Zambia
Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the fetal outcome, magnitude of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) or meconium stained liquor (MSL), and risk factors responsible for MSAF at University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. That the frequency of MSAF during the period under study at UTH was 10.2%. It also demonstrated no significant difference in terms of good Foetal outcome at 5 minutes in women with MSAF compared with those without MSAF. (Adjusted p value= 0.773). Most women (90.2%) with MSAF also had good outcome of Apgar score 7 or more at 5 minute though less when compared to those without MSAF at 97.8%. Caesarean section (C/S) rate was high (37.6%)
Methods: The study was a case control study conducted at University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka Zambia from May to August 2018. Information was collected from a calculated sample size of 186 women using a structured interview schedule of which 93 were cases and another 93 were controls. Patient files were also used to collect data. In order to ensure that the findings were valid, the statistical significance was set at p < 0.05
Results: The study found among women with MSAF versus 19.4 % among those without MSAF. There was also a strong association between MSAF and being delivered by C/S (Adjusted odds ratio = 4.579 and adjusted p value = 0.002) indicating that women with MSAF were 4.5 times more likely to be delivered by C/S as compared to those without MSAF. Electronic monitoring of patients with MSAF was low with only 33 (35.5%) of women with MSAF being monitored with cardiotocography (CTG). During the period under study, 30 (32%) women with MSAF had associated complications. However, there was no significant association between any demographic characteristic, and or investigated obstetric risk actor and MSAF
Conclusion: The frequency of MSAF at UTH was 10.2%. The study demonstrated no significant difference in Foetal outcome at 5 minutes in women with MSAF compared with those without MSAF. However, Caesarean rate was noted to be high at 37.6% in those with MSAF compared to those without MSAF at 19.4%. No investigated complication was significantly associated MSAF at UTH.
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