Medical Imaging of Pentalogy of Cantrell: A Case Report from Zambia
Medical imaging plays a significant role in the detection of foetal anomalies, such as the Pentalogy of Cantrell (POC). POC is a congenital anomaly involving five or fewer body malformations: ectopia cordis (EC), tetralogy of fallot (TOF), sternal defects, diaphragmatic defects, and abdominal wall defects. The commonly used imaging modality in the detection of POC during pregnancy is ultrasound because it uses non-ionising radiation, is cheap, and is available in most medical facilities. We report a rare case of POC from a medical imaging standpoint in Zambia. Two obstetric ultrasound scans were performed in the 3rd trimester. The initial scan revealed, among other things, unappreciated abdominal contents, while the second scan revealed a foetal heart sited partially external to the thoracic cavity, with external herniation of the liver and bowels. Our case was classified as incomplete POC because not all five main malformations were present. This case report highlights the importance of having well-organised obstetric ultrasound imaging services both in urban and rural parts of the country to improve antenatal care.
EC - Ectopia Cordis
IUFD - Intrauterine Foetal Death
POC - Pentalogy of Cantrell
TOF - Tetralogy of Fallot
VSD - Ventricular Septal Defect
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