Medical Imaging of Pentalogy of Cantrell: A Case Report from Zambia

  • Mubanga Bwalya St. Francis' Hospital and University of Lusaka, Zambia
  • Ndanji Ivy Chikasa St. Francis' Hospital, Department of Imaging, Zambia
  • Osward Bwanga Midlands University Hospital Tullamore, Radiology Department, Co. Offaly, Ireland
  • Ziche Makukula St Francis' Hospital, Zambia
  • Ngosa Chanda St Francis' Hospital, Zambia
  • Ernest Chanda Lusaka Apex University and Cancer Diseases Hospital
  • Kelvin Chitarnya Evelyn Hone College
Keywords: Foetal anomalies, Medical Imaging, Obstetric ultrasound, Pentalogy ofCantrell, Sonographer, Zambia

Abstract

Medical imaging plays a significant role in the detection of foetal anomalies, such as the Pentalogy of Cantrell (POC). POC is a congenital anomaly involving five or fewer body malformations: ectopia cordis (EC), tetralogy of fallot (TOF), sternal defects, diaphragmatic defects, and abdominal wall defects. The commonly used imaging modality in the detection of POC during pregnancy is ultrasound because it uses non-ionising radiation, is cheap, and is available in most medical facilities. We report a rare case of POC from a medical imaging standpoint in Zambia. Two obstetric ultrasound scans were performed in the 3rd trimester. The initial scan revealed, among other things, unappreciated abdominal contents, while the second scan revealed a foetal heart sited partially external to the thoracic cavity, with external herniation of the liver and bowels. Our case was classified as incomplete POC because not all five main malformations were present. This case report highlights the importance of having well-organised obstetric ultrasound imaging services both in urban and rural parts of the country to improve antenatal care.

ABBREVIATIONS

EC - Ectopia Cordis

IUFD - Intrauterine Foetal Death

POC - Pentalogy of Cantrell

TOF - Tetralogy of Fallot

VSD - Ventricular Septal Defect

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Author Biographies

Ziche Makukula, St Francis' Hospital, Zambia

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Ngosa Chanda, St Francis' Hospital, Zambia

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Published
2022-08-05
How to Cite
Bwalya, M., Chikasa, N., Bwanga, O., Makukula, Z., Chanda, N., Chanda, E., & Chitarnya, K. (2022). Medical Imaging of Pentalogy of Cantrell: A Case Report from Zambia. Medical Journal of Zambia, 49(1), 102 - 109. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.55320/mjz.49.1.1110
Section
Case Reports