The Prevalence of Kidney Dysfunction and Associated Risk Factors among ART-Naïve HIV-1 infected Adults at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia


Background: Chronic HIV infection is associated with renal complications including renal dysfunction. Risk factors found in literature for kidney disease in the HIV population include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, low CD4 count, high viral load, hepatitis C virus co-infection, hypoalbuminemia, and a family history of CKD, black race, nephrotoxic drugs including antiretroviral medication. Other factors implicated being underweight, obesity, herbal medication use, chronic NSAID use.