Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in Zambia


Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia.

Methods and Materials: 324 adult participants were recruited from urban and rural areas in Zambia. They had an age range of 19 - 65 and education range of 5 – 19 years of schooling. The Zambia Neurobehavioural Test battery was administered.



A 14yr old male presented with subdural empyema following a right frontal subaponeurotic abscess. Presented with a Glasgow coma scale of 8/15, left sided hemiplegia and a history of convulsions for 4 days. Other history was unremarkable. CT brain showed diffuse subdural empyema. There was no neurosurgeon on site and the patient declined referral to the nearest centre with neurosurgical services.

Super Refractory Status Epilepticus: A Case Report from Livingstone Central Hospital


Background: Status Epilepticus (SE) is defined as more than five minutes of persistent seizure activity without full recovery of consciousness in between the seizures. If SE fails to respond to two antiepileptic drugs, it is called refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and if it continues or recurs 24 hours after anesthesia, it is called super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE).

Management of Intracranial Ventriculitis caused by Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii: Case Report and Literature Review


Background:  We report a case of a male patient in our hospital who developed associated multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (MDRAB) intracrainial ventriculitis and treated using intraventricular (IVT) plus intrathecal (IT) colistin.

Objective: The purpose of our case report is to show case the effectiveness and safety of using intraventricular (IVT) plus intrathecal(IT) colistin in the management of potentially fatal MDRAB associated intracrainial ventriculitis.

Case Report Ramsay Hunt Syndrome presenting as “a window’’ to HIV diagnosis in 48 year old African female: A case report


Background: Ramsay Hunt Syndrome in adults is reported in a number of case reports as an uncommon presentation of Varicella zoster Virus infection. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome occurs when there is reactivation of the latent Varicella zoster virus present in the ganglia due to previous varicella infection. Following a breakdown of the immune system, latent Varicella zoster infection can be activated. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection), causes immunosuppression and hence reactivation of Varicella zoster.

Is Oxygen Supplementation Necessary for Patients under Spinal Anaesthesia? - A Prospective Hospital-Based Study


Background: Oxygen supplementation is given routinely to patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia, the basic aim being to prevent oxygen desaturation and hypoxemia.


Objective: This study aimed to find out the incidence of hypoxemia under spinal anaesthesia and determine if oxygen supplementation is necessary for patients under spinal anaesthesia.